Economy, Finance and Trade: Bulgaria

May 2024

The report examines the economic landscape of Bulgaria and provides information on major monetary indicators, foreign trade, investments, and government finance. The economy in Bulgaria expanded in real terms in 2022, driven by private consumption and external demand. However, the global economic slowdown, elevated inflationary pressures, and tightening financial conditions are set to undermine business and consumer confidence globally, raise uncertainty, and weigh on the country’s economic outl

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The Country Briefings series examine market potential, economic and consumer trends impacting each country and how they are set to change.

Each Country Briefing covers one of these topics:

Economy, Finance and Trade: Understanding the structure, health and potential risks of an economy are important for decision-making within an existing operating environment as well as for expansion strategies. Real GDP growth, inflation and exchange rate fluctuations will directly impact consumer market potential. Import and export trade profiles help gauge how open an economy is to trade and investment, while analysis of government finances can be used to explore macroeconomic stability and susceptibility to economic shocks.

Income and Expenditure: Insights into income, wealth and expenditure of consumers are vital in helping businesses make strategic decisions with regards to which country (or even which region within a country) to enter, which consumer segment to target, which products or services to market, and at which price point. Other factors such as the size and expansion of the middle class and income inequality are also important in helping companies gauge the potential of a country market.

Households: Global shifts in gender, ageing, migration and housing are transforming the size, location,  general make-up as well as income and expenditure of households around the globe, with diverse implications for governments and companies. Households insights can help identify the decision-making processes and consumption tastes of different household groups and types within a country, and assess household appliance and digital readiness that is key for formulating market technology and internet strategies.

Business Dynamics: A stable and competitive business environment is vital to operate efficiently and attract inward investment. Businesses can assess these factors alongside challenges such as corruption, political instability and terrorism, also gain insight into business operating environment and make strategic investment decisions. Transport infrastructure, ICT readiness and labour force dynamics will also identify potential issues with a supply chain and the level of workforce skills.

Commodities: Insights on key sectors directly related to the environmental commodities of a country such as energy, water, pollution, environmental resilience, forest and biodiversity and food and agriculture help businesses to make strategic decisions in relation to environmental and commodities trends, improve brand reputation and ensure long-term operations while ultimately growing the bottom line.

The briefings cover 103 countries and identify topics of crucial interest to planners, marketers and researchers.

Economy, Finance and Trade: Bulgaria


The economy is expected to witness stronger growth in 2024
Inflation rate is forecast to decline further
Bulgaria’s trade sector faces challenges amid subdued external demand
Government sets a budget deficit target at 3.0% of GDP over 2024-2026


Chart 1 Economic Landscape of Bulgaria 2023-2028
Chart 2 Real GDP Growth in Bulgaria 2010-2028
Chart 3 GDP Size and Growth 2018-2028
Chart 4 Gross Value Added by Sector in Bulgaria 2023
Chart 5 Domestic Demand 2023 and Period Growth 2018-2023
Chart 6 Standardised Business Confidence Index 2018-2025
Chart 7 Standardised Consumer Confidence Index 2018-2025
Chart 8 Productivity 2018/2023
Chart 9 Productivity by Sector in Bulgaria 2023 and CAGR 2018-2023
Chart 10 Monetary Landscape of Bulgaria 2023
Chart 11 Inflation 2018-2028
Chart 12 Average Inflation 2018-2028
Chart 13 Interest Rates in Bulgaria 2018-2025
Chart 14 Exchange Rates 2018-2025
Chart 15 Money Supply Growth and Money Velocity in Bulgaria 2018-2025
Chart 16 Foreign Trade Landscape of Bulgaria 2023
Chart 17 Exports and Export Price Index in Bulgaria 2018-2023
Chart 18 Exports by Commodity in Bulgaria 2023
Chart 19 Top 10 Export Destinations 2023 and Period Growth 2018-2023
Chart 20 Imports and Import Price Index in Bulgaria 2018-2023
Chart 21 Imports by Commodity in Bulgaria 2023
Chart 22 Top 10 Import Origins 2023 and Period Growth 2018-2023
Chart 23 Investment Landscape of Bulgaria 2022-2023
Chart 24 Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and FDI intensity 2022
Chart 25 Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and Outflows in Bulgaria 2017-2022
Chart 26 Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Bulgaria 2018-2025
Chart 27 Government Budget Landscape of Bulgaria 2023
Chart 28 Public Debt 2023
Chart 29 Government Revenue 2023
Chart 30 Government Expenditure 2023
Chart 31 Government Expenditure by Economic Type in Bulgaria 2023
Chart 32 Government Expenditure by Function in Bulgaria 2023 and Period Growth 2018-2023
Chart 33 Baseline and Scenario Forecasts in Bulgaria 2022-2028

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